Hester Swift, June 2017
About the author
This guide was created by Hester Swift, Foreign & International Law Librarian at the IALS Library.
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The European Union (EU) developed from the three European Communities founded in the 1950s: the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It became the 'European Union' under the Maastricht Treaty of 1992; this treaty provided that the European Communities should remain in existence as part of the EU and changed the name of the European Economic Community to 'European Community' (EC).
The Coal and Steel Community was wound up in 2002 and the European Community ceased to exist in December 2009 when it was subsumed into the European Union under the Treaty of Lisbon. Euratom is still going, however.
From the original six member states of the 1950s, the EU has grown to a total of twenty-eight member states today.The UK joined in 1973, but gave notice on 29 March 2017 that it is going to leave.
The EU has its own courts: the Court of Justice and the General Court (formerly 'Court of First Instance'). From 2004 until September 2016, it also had a third court, the Civil Service Tribunal, but this body has been dissolved and its jurisdiction has been transferred to the General Court.
The main legislative and policy-making bodies of the European Union are the Council of the European Union (also known as the 'Council of Ministers'), the European Parliament and the European Commission. The EU official publisher is the Publications Office of the European Union.
The Institute of Advanced Legal Studies Library has a substantial collection of European Union material of legal interest, from the 1950s to the present day. It is not, however, an EU depository; larger collections of EU official publications can be found at EU Documentation Centres (EDCs). The nearest EDC is at the London School of Economics Library (British Library of Political and Economic Science).
At IALS, the EU collection is kept on the third floor, with some additional material is in the Short Loan Collection on the fourth floor, or in the basement Reserve. Several databases containing EU information are also available.
The Official Journal
The Official Journal of the European Union, or 'OJ', is the European Union’s official gazette. It publishes EU legislation, minutes of the European Parliament, the common positions of the Council of the EU, case summaries, notices and many other types of official document.
The Official Journal was originally the gazette of the European Coal and Steel Community, from 1952 until 1958. It was published in French, Dutch, Italian and German; the French edition was called Journal officiel de la Communauté Européene du charbon et de l'acier. It soon became the gazette of all the European Communities, with the French title Journal officiel des Communautés européennes. At first there was only one series, but in 1968 it divided into two: the L series and the C series.
The English edition began in 1973, as the Official Journal of the European Communities. It changed its name in February 2003, to Official Journal of the European Union. The OJ is now published in twenty-three languages.
The printed OJ used to be the only authentic source of EU legislation, but the online version on EUR-Lex was given authentic status from 1 July 2013 onwards. The print edition ceased publication at the end of 2013.
OJ series and sub-series
There are two main series of the Official Journal, plus the public procurement supplement: -
- Official Journal of the European Communities / European Union: Legislation, known as the 'L Series', 1968 onwards; online-only from January 2014 onwards, via EUR-Lex. Publishes secondary legislation (directives, regulations and so on) and some primary legislation. An irregular 'LI' subseries was introduced in January 2016 (not listed separately on EUR-Lex, but found among the main L series issues).
- Official Journal of the European Communities / European Union: Information and Notices, known as the 'C series' (from the French sub-title, Communications et Informations), 1968 onwards; online-only from January 2014 onwards, via EUR-Lex.The C series publishes most primary legislation (the Treaties), preparatory legislative documents, European Parliament minutes, case summaries and other documents.
Subseries: some issues of the OJ C have 'E', 'A' or 'I' after the issue number, e.g. OJ C 183E.
- OJ CE subseries (31 August 1999 to 28 March 2014); this electronic-only subseries was an online supplement to the printed OJ C (the 'E' stands for 'electronic'); it published documents such as European Parliament minutes and Council common positions. The CE subseries was no longer required once the entire OJ was online-only, though it continued to appear for a few months.
- OJ CA subseries: (early 1980s onwards, original title, Annex to Official Journal...): used in the early years to publish very large documents, such as the catalogue of plant varieties; now mainly devoted to notices such as job advertisements.
- OJ CI subseries: introduced in January 2016, 'CI' issues are published occasionally when a change is needed to the planned content of the OJ C.
The CE, CI and CA issues of the Official Journal are scattered through the main C series on EUR-Lex, not listed separately. However, it is possible to display the OJ CA - but not the other series - using filters at the top of the OJ page.
- Official Journal of the European Communities / European Union: Supplement (also known as the 'S series'), 1978 onwards; online-only, via Tenders Electronic Daily, July 1998 onwards. Consists of public procurement notices.
Official Journal references consist of the series, issue number, date and page numbers. They usually follow this pattern:
OJ L 12, 16.1.2001 p. 1–23
OJ C 70, 27.3.2007 p. 9-12
However, documents published in the C series sometimes have references in the form '2000/C 264/03', meaning OJ C, 2000, issue 264, item three (not page three).
Print and microfiche holdings at IALS
IALS holds the entire Official Journal (except the S Series) in English and/or French, from 1952 up to the end of print publication in 2013:-
L Series 1973 to 2013 (1973 to 1995 also on microfiche; online-only from 2014)
C Series 1996 to 2013 in print (1973 to 1995 also on microfiche; online-only from 2014)
Official Journal of the European Communities: special edition (English translations of laws in force when the UK and Ireland joined in 1973)
Journal officiel de la Communauté Européene du charbon et de l'acier / des Communautés européennes / de l'Union européenne,1958 to 2008 (microfiche only 1978-2008).
The Official Journal is on the European Union's EUR-Lex website from the start (1952) up to the latest issues. However, the online version only has authentic status from 1 July 2013 onwards.
The OJ S (Supplement), which publishes public procurement notices, is available on Tenders Electronic Daily (TED). Current notices are available to all and registered users of TED may also access a five-year archive.
Justis Celex, Westlaw UK and Lexis®Library all include the contents of the L Series (that is, EU legislation) back to 1952, as individual documents, not arranged in the form of journal issues. IALS subscribes to all three databases - see Electronic Law Library.
Westlaw UK has documents published in the C Series back to about 1980, plus a few 1970s documents (all come under 'Information and Notices' on the EU page). Justis has OJ C documents from 1990 onwards; Lexis®Library has them back to 2000 (under 'EU Materials').
The EU's primary legislation consists of treaties concerning the structure and functions of the EU, plus the accession treaties admitting new member states. The Treaties page of EUR-Lex is the most convenient source of these instruments: it includes the original texts, plus consolidated versions of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, Treaty on European Union and EURATOM Treaty (see below for detailed information about print and online sources of the Treaties).
The founding treaties
- Treaty Establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), Paris, 18 April 1951; in force 23 July 1952, expired 23 July 2002 (art. 97).
- Treaty Establishing the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), Rome, 25 March 1957; in force 1 January 1958.
- Treaty Establishing the European Economic Community (EEC), Rome, 25 March 1957; in force 1 January 1958; traditionally known as 'the Treaty of Rome' (even though the Euratom Treaty was also signed in Rome and on the same day).
Renamed Treaty Establishing the European Community (EC Treaty, or TEC) as from 1 November 1993.
Renamed again, as Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), from 1 December 2009.
The articles of this treaty have been renumbered twice during the treaty reform process over the years. Article-number conversion tables are annexed to the Treaty of Amsterdam and Treaty of Lisbon (which did the renumbering); a table combining both sets of changes is available on the OUP website (accompanying Woods & Watson, Steiner & Woods EU Law, 12th edition, OUP, 2014).
- Treaty on European Union (Maastricht Treaty), signed 7 February 1992, in force 1 November 1993. Founded the European Union and transformed the European Economic Community (EEC) into the European Community (EC). Sometimes known as 'the EU Treaty', or 'TEU'. The Treaties of Amsterdam and Lisbon renumbered the articles of this treaty, as well as those of the Treaty of Rome (see above).
Other EU primary legislation includes reform treaties such as the Single European Act (1986), Treaty of Amsterdam (1997) and Treaty of Lisbon (2007), as well as the Charter of Fundamental Rights (2010).
For an overview of EU primary legislation, see 'Building Europe through the Treaties', in the Legislation Summaries section of EUR-Lex.
Sources of the Treaties
- Official Journal of the EU: the original versions of all but the earliest treaties ( the ECSC, EEC and Euratom Treaties, etc.) - are in the OJ, mostly in the C series (see EUR-Lex for OJ citations).
EUR-Lex: almost all the original texts are on EUR-Lex; this includes the ECSC, EEC and Euratom Treaties (though the latter are not in English, as there were no English-speaking signatories). One or two of the early minor treaties are missing from EUR-Lex, for example, the Treaty amending the Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (Traité portant modification au Traité instituant la Communauté Européenne du Charbon et de l´Acier), Luxembourg, 27 October 1956 (published in Luxembourg's official gazette, the Mémorial, 19 February 1957).
- UN Treaty Series: English translations of the 1950s founding treaties were published in the UNTS (see FLARE Index to Treaties for citations). N.B. In the UNTS, the ECSC Treaty has the title Treaty between the Federal Republic of Germany [etc.]... instituting the European Coal and Steel Community, not the more usual title.
- Subscription databases: English translations are available on Westlaw UK, Lexis®Library and Justis Celex. However they are not presented in a very user-friendly way: all three databases provide each article of each treaty as a separate item in search results, and the browse screens are not easy to use.
The OJ C: consolidated (amended) versions of the key treaties, such as the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, are published periodically in the C series of the OJ. At the time of writing, the latest consolidation was in OJ C 202, 07.06.2016. All these consolidated versions are also available on EUR-Lex, Lexis, Westlaw and Justis
Monograph editions: various consolidated versions of the key treaties have been issued as monographs by the EU Publications Office, under titles such as European Union: selected instruments taken from the treaties and Consolidated versions of the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community. IALS has many of these compilations.
Other sources: these include Blackstone's EU treaties & legislation, published annually by Oxford University Press, and the looseleaf, Smit & Herzog on the law of the European Union (LexisNexis Matthew Bender, 2005-). Both titles are held at IALS.
Directives, regulations and decisions
The main types of secondary legislation are directives, regulations and decisions; other types include recommendations and opinions. The EU gives each legislative instrument a reference consisting of the year and a serial number, for example:
- Council Directive 1999/31/EC of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste
Regulation (EC) no. 6/2002...on Community designs; or Regulation (EU) 2015/848*...on insolvency proceedings.
*(Since January 2015, regulation references have taken the form YYYY/N, to match the format for directives and decisions.)
- 85/648/EEC, Council Decision of 19 December 1985 on import quotas…
There is now an additional reference for EU legislation: the European Legislation Identifier, or ELI (for example http://data.europa.eu/eli/dir/2008/48/oj is the ELI for Directive 2008/48). The ELI was introduced for technical purposes such as the creation of machine-readable links; a EUR-Lex FAQ has more information.
Printed sources of secondary legislation
All secondary legislation is published in the Official Journal of the European Union. Until 1 July 2013, the print edition of the OJ was the authentic source of secondary legislation, but from 1 July 2013 onwards the authentic source is the online version, which is available on the EUR-Lex website (the printed OJ ceased publication in 2014).
IALS holds a complete run of the printed OJ, including the English Special Edition, a collection of secondary legislation in force when the UK and Ireland joined the European Communities in 1973, translated into English.
Consolidated versions: IALS Library's sources of hard-copy consolidations include Blackstone's EU treaties & legislation, which reproduces a selection of secondary instruments, and Blackstone's UK and EC Competition Documents (both published by Oxford University Press).
All secondary legislation is on EUR-Lex. N.B. EUR-Lex - and other databases - default to showing the original text of legislation, with lists of amendments attached, not the consolidated text.
Consolidated versions of secondary legislation (incorporating amendments), are available on EUR-Lex and Lexis, but the latest consolidation is not always up-to-date. To check whether a consolidated text is up-to-date:
search for the directive/regulation/decision on EUR-Lex
in the results list, click on the title of the original instrument (the one with the OJ citation)
open the Document Information tab and scroll down to the lists of amendments and consolidations
compare the date of the last amendment with the date of the latest consolidation, as shown below:
EUR-Lex Document Information tab for Directive 2008/48, viewed 18 May 2017:
the latest consolidation does not include the 2016 amendments.
Other online sources: all secondary legislation is also on Westlaw, Justis and Lexis®Library; these databases are available to authorised users via the IALS Electronic Law Library. Lexis has consolidated texts in a collection called 'EU Legislation: Consolidated Versions', as well as original legislation (with lists of amendments). Justis and Westlaw only have the original versions, with lists of amendments.
EU legislative procedure
The EU's Ordinary Legislative Procedure (formerly 'Codecision Procedure') and special legislative procedures are explained on the website of the Council of the European Union. Further information may be found in Paul Craig and Gráinne de Búrca, EU Law: Text, Cases, and Materials (6th edition, OUP 2015), chapter 5.
Tracking the legislative process
To check the progress of ongoing EU legislation, see:
Legislative Procedures on EUR-Lex (this has replaced the European Commission's PreLex database)
Legislative Observatory, the European Parliament's legislation-tracking database
Both EUR-Lex and the Legislative Observatory list the completed or ongoing stages of the procedure, from the original Commission proposal up to the final adoption of the act. They give links to associated documents such as parliamentary committee reports, Council common positions and press releases. It is best to check both EUR-Lex and the Legislative Observatory, as one may be more up-to-date than the other; each EUR-Lex Legislative Procedures record has a link to its equivalent in the Legislative Observatory.
Implementation (transposition) of directives
Directives are an indirect form of legislation: each member state has to implement - or 'transpose' - them. The UK normally uses statutory instruments to implement directives, although occasionally an act of Parliament is required.
Details of implementing legislation for each member state are given on EUR-Lex, Westlaw and Justis (but not on Lexis®Library). On EUR-Lex, the information is on the 'National Transposition' tab for the directive. To get to this tab, click on the title of directive in the search results list (not on the pdf or html icons). On Westlaw, look up the directive, then click on 'National Measures'; on Justis, find the directive then click on 'Implementing SIs'.
If EUR-Lex has no implementation details for a particular member state, do not assume the directive has not been implemented, but double-check using the following sources (all available at IALS):
- European Current Law (series consisting of yearbooks and monthly digests, published by Sweet and Maxwell) - lists implementing legislation for all member states.
- EU Legislation Implementator (part of Halsbury’s Statutory Instruments, published by LexisNexis) - covers UK implementation only.
- government websites - information about forthcoming or very recent implementation may be posted on the website of the government department responsible.
- N-Lex - this EU service can be used to search the national legislation websites of the member states for implementing measures; it provides a multi-lingual thesaurus which can be used to translate key words.
- Commercial Laws of Europe (Sweet and Maxwell) - a print publication which reproduces selected laws of EU member states, in translation, with an emphasis on laws implementing EU directives. Some of the annual volumes have tables of implemented legislation, but these are not cumulative.
Legislative and non-legislative acts
The Official Journal publishes secondary legislation under the headings 'Legislative acts' and 'Non-legislative acts', depending on which legislative procedure has been used to pass the instrument:
- a legislative act is an instrument passed using either the ordinary legislative procedure (art. 294 TFEU) or a special legislative procedure (art. 289(2) TFEU);
- a non-legislative act is an instrument made by other procedures; the 'non-legislative' category includes delegated and implementing legislation as well as other instruments.
A particular legislative or non-legislative act could be a directive, regulation, decision, or other type of instrument. The EUR-Lex Glossary has a little more information about legislative and non-legislative acts, under 'European Union (EU) hierarchy of norms'.
The EU Courts
The EU has two courts:
the Court of Justice: established in 1952, heard its first case in 1954; often known as the 'European Court of Justice' (ECJ), but this is not its formal title. Not to be confused with the European Court of Human Rights, which does not belong to the EU.
the General Court: established in 1988 as the 'Court of First Instance' (CFI) and heard its first case in 1989; was renamed 'General Court' in 2009.
There used to be a third judicial body, the Civil Service Tribunal, which operated from 2006 until summer 2016, hearing employment cases involving the staff of the EU institutions. It was closed down in September 2016 and the General Court has now taken over EU staff cases.
When an EU case is first registered it is given a reference consisting of an alphabetic prefix, a serial number and the year of registration. Entering the case number is the quickest way to find a case on the Curia or EUR-Lex websites.
The prefix comes from the French name of the court: -
- C-14/89 Cour de justice (Court of Justice)
- T-220/95 Tribunal de première instance (Court of First Instance/General Court)
- F-14/06 Tribunal de la fonction publique (Civil Service Tribunal)
Until 1989, alphabetic prefixes were not used, because there was only one court. Case numbers consisted simply of a number and the year of registration, for example 290/84.
Opinions of the advocates general
Almost all Court of Justice cases used to have two stages: first the Advocate-General’s opinion, then the judgment (usually a few months later). However, in recent years many ECJ cases have not had an opinion stage - for statistics, see the judicial activity section of the Court's annual reports.
General Court / Court of First Instance cases only have one stage, the judgment, although there are a few exceptions (for example case T-51/89 had an advocate general's opinion as well as a judgment).
Printed sources of EU cases
The official series of EU law reports is Reports of Cases before the Court of Justice and the Court of First Instance. It is usually known as the 'European Court Reports' (ECR), but this is not its actual title. The printed ECR published cases decided from 1954 to 2011, after which it was replaced by an official online-only edition.
IALS Library has the entire printed English ECR. The title has changed over the years: Reports of cases before the Court of Justice of the European Coal and Steel Community, then Reports of cases before the Court, then Reports of Cases before the Court of Justice and the Court of First Instance. IALS also has the French edition of the ECR, from 1954 to 2003; the German edition, from 1954 to 1998 part 2; the Dutch edition, from 1954 to 1964; and the Italian edition, from 1954 to 1964.
From 1994 until the end of August 2016, there was a sub-series of the ECR called European Court Reports...Staff Cases (ECR-SC). It published cases concerning employees of EU institutions. This title is held at IALS from 1994 to 2006. The printed edition ceased publication with the 2009 volumes and the title became online-only. ECR-SC has now ceased publication entirely and staff cases are published in the main series, Reports of Cases..., (see background information on Curia website).
The ECR used to publish every case in full, in contrast to the UK's selective law reporting practice. Since 2004, however, less important cases have been omitted, although brief details are given; the full report of these cases can be found on Curia and on EUR-Lex.
After the creation of the Court of First Instance (now called the General Court) in 1989, the ECR was divided into two sections: Section I covered the ECJ and Section II the CFI. Citations took the form  ECR II-469 (meaning 1991, part II, starting at page 469). However, the online-only ECR does not have separate sections for the two courts and it numbers each case from page one; this means that EU cases decided from 2012 onwards have had to be cited in a different way, using the European Case Law Identifier (ECLI) - see below for details.
The C series of the Official Journal of the European Union publishes case summaries a few months after the judgment. It also publishes court notices.
Selected EU cases appear in commercially-published law reports, often before they are available in the ECR. These series include:
- Common Market Law Reports (CMLR)
- European Commercial Cases (ECC)
- European Community Cases (CEC)
- All England Law Reports: European Cases (All ER (EC)); ceased publication in December 2015.
IALS has all of these titles.
All EU cases are available on the website of the EU courts, Curia. This includes the online-only official edition of the European Court Reports. To search all cases, use the site's InfoCuria database. To browse the online-only ECR, click here and select 'Access to the online Reports of Cases'.
Both pending and decided cases are covered by InfoCuria. The Curia website also provides numerical lists of all cases, with cross-references to joined cases and links to the full text of decisions and related documents.
The EUR-Lex website has all EU cases as well; it includes the online-only official ECR. EUR-Lex lists journal articles commenting on a given case, on the 'About this Document' tab attached to the case.
EU cases are also on Westlaw, Justis and Lexis®Library. However, Justis and Lexis omit those judgments that are not available in English (the ones that are not published in full in the ECR).
The European Case Law Identifier (ECLI)
The European Case Law Identifer is a uniform reference for cases. It is used not just by the EU, but by individual countries (such as the Netherlands) for their own cases, and also by the European Patent Office. The ECLI was introduced by the EU in 2014, but ECLIs have also been assigned retrospectively to all EU cases, back to 1954.
An example of a full ECLI is:
ECLI:EU:C:2017:73 = ECLI for an EU case decided by the Court of Justice in 2017, number 73.
For General Court cases, the court code is 'T'. ECLIs are assigned when a case is decided. The final number in an ECLI is not the same as the case number assigned when the case was first registered.
The EU now cites all cases - however old - using the ECLI rather than a European Court Reports reference. Some commercially-published journals and law reports still use the ECR citation for older cases, but give the ECLI for cases decided from 2012 onwards (that is, cases published in the official online-only ECR, which do not have traditional ECR references).
Whereas the same ECR citation is used for the Advocate General's opinion and the final judgment in the case, the opinion and judgment will have different ECLIs.
European Union competition cases, such as antitrust investigations and merger scrutinies, are usually dealt with by the European Commission or national competition authorities. EU and national courts hear some competition cases, however.
The Official Journal C series publishes information about the different stages of a competition case, including notices concerning new cases, announcements that a merger has been cleared, opinions of the advisory committees and some Commission decisions.
The Official Journal L series publishes some types of competition decision by the Commission, for example, Commission Decision of 5 December 2001 relating to a proceeding under Article 81 of the EC Treaty (Case IV/37.614/F3 PO/Interbrew and Alken-Maes), OJ L 200, 07.08.2003, p. 59-84.
The Report on Competition Policy, published annually by the European Commission, is a survey of each year’s competition activities from 1971 to date. It includes some information published in the OJ: for example, it lists cases closed by “comfort letter” (a feature of the pre-May 2004 competition regime). The Reports are available on the EU's Competition website (for older reports, there are links to the EU Law and Publications portal). IALS Library has the printed reports from 1971 to 2008.
The Antitrust supplement to Sweet and Maxwell's Common Market Law Reports reproduces Commission decisions, court decisions, notices and other documents. IALS has this series.
The EC Merger Control Reporter, a multi-volume looseleaf work (IALS Library's copy last updated in 2007), includes merger decisions with commentary, legislation, notices, guidelines, court decisions and agreements with non-EU parties (such as the United States). It has a chronological index and an index of party names. Kluwer, the publisher, has announced that it will cease publication in 2014.
The main source of information about EU competition policy is the European Commission's Competiton website. It provides case databases (details below), legislation, rules, guidelines and the annual Report on Competition Policy.
- Commission investigations: the Competition website has a database of competition cases dealt with by the European Commission. It covers antitrust and cartel cases from January 1999 to date (see chronological list for cases from 1964 to 1998), merger cases from 21 September 1990 to date and state aid cases from 1 January 2000 onwards (see Search Help). There are links to competition decisions, press releases and other documents.
- National court decisions: the Commission's Competition website provides a database of national court decisions on EU competition law.
- ECJ and CFI/General Court decisions: there is a collection of ECJ and CFI competition cases from 1962 to 1999 on the Competition website; for more recent cases, see Curia (this has all cases, not just competition cases). Alternatively, select competition cases from EUR-Lex's classified Directory of European Union case law (chapter 4). N.B. The Directory defaults to showing post-Lisbon cases - for both pre- and post-Lisbon cases, tick 'show cases from both classification schemes'.
EUR-Lex, Justis, Westlaw and Lexis®Library have competition decisions and notices published in the Official Journal L and C series.
The European Competition Network coordinates enforcement of EC competition rules by the member states’ national competition authorities and the European Commission. Its website provides background information, legislation and links to the national competition authorities’ websites.
COM documents, often known as 'COM docs', are a series of publications produced by the European Commission for the attention of other EU institutions, such as the Council of the EU or the European Parliament. They have reference numbers prefixed 'COM' (standing for 'Commission'), for example, COM (2000) 529. They include numerous different types of publication, such as proposals for legislation, green papers, white papers and reports on the implementation of policy.
Printed COM documents ceased publication in April 2003; the series is now online-only, via EUR-Lex.
IALS holds some printed COM documents of legal interest. Each has its own catalogue record, but most of them have the same classmark: FOL GO1.A1.J.45.
As well as being published separately, COM documents were reproduced in the Official Journal C Series until 2003. Proposals for legislation - a particular type of COM doc - appear in the OJ C without the explanatory memorandum that is found in the original document.
EUR-Lex has all COM documents from 1999 onwards, together with selected earlier ones. EUR-Lex has been the official source of COM docs since they ceased print publication in 2003.
Archive of European Integration: provided by the University of Pittsburgh, this website makes available many COM documents which are too old to be found online elsewhere, including green and white papers and well-known reports.
Justis: the 'Proposals' section of the Justis Celex database includes all types of COM document, not just proposals. They are available in full from around the mid-1990s onwards; before that, only brief details are given.
Westlaw: includes the full text of COM documents from around the mid-1990s onwards, under 'Preparatory Acts'.
Lexis®Library: COM documents are available from around the mid-1990s onwards, under 'EU Materials' ('Preparatory Documents').
The EU makes international agreements with non-EU countries and other international bodies; the member states of the EU also make international agreements among themselves on certain subjects.
International agreements are published in the L Series of the Official Journal, for example:
Agreement between the European Union and the Republic of Azerbaijan on the facilitation of the issuance of visas, OJ L 128, 30.4.2014, p. 49–60.
The Council of the European Union’s Treaty Office has an Agreements Database providing the text of each agreement, with status information. It covers all agreements since 1989, plus older agreements which are still in force and some important old agreements which are no longer in force. (It also includes the fundamental treaties, the EU's primary legislation.)
Another database of international agreements is made available by the European Commission’s Treaty Office. This database only covers international agreements with external parties; it excludes primary legislation ('The Treaties') and international agreements among EU member states. It provides a summary of each agreement as well as the full text and status information; it also provides analytical lists ('ready inventories'), for example, a list of all agreements which include a declaration of competence by the EU.
EU international agreements are also on EUR-Lex, Justis, Westlaw and Lexis.
IALS Library has a large collection of books on many different aspects of European Union law. Most - but not all - are found in the third floor reading room at classmark GO1.A1 (see Library Catalogue for details).
Introductory works include the following:
Dashwood, Alan, et al, Wyatt & Dashwood's European Union Law. 6th ed. (Hart, 2011)
- Hartley, T.C., The Foundations of European Union Law. 8th ed. (OUP, 2014)
- Steiner, J., Steiner & Woods: EU Law. 12th ed. (OUP, 2014)
There are a few of our recently-acquired titles:
Lasok, K. P. E., Lasok's European Court practice and procedure (Bloomsbury Professional, 2017)
Dimitry Kochenov (ed.), EU citizenship and federalism: the role of rights (Cambridge University Press, 2017)
Rainer Kattel, Jan Kregel and Mario Tonveronachi (ed.s), Financial regulation in the European Union (Routledge, Taylor & Francis 2016)
FinD-Er, the online catalogue/discovery tool of the European Commission Libraries, can be used as a bibliography, since it gives details of individual journal articles as well as monographs and serials. Search by key word, then select 'articles' and/or other material types from the filters on the left. (Full-text articles are restricted to Commission Library members.)
European Current Law, a print publication held at IALS, has a bibliographical section.
A number of old bibliographies are held at IALS classmark BG110. The most up-to-date title is the Court of Justice Library’s Legal bibliography of European integration (1981-1999).
European Current Law, published by Thomson Reuters / Sweet and Maxwell, provides monthly digests of selected EU legislation and case law, arranged by subject. It also lists journal articles, books, legislation, cases, competition decisions, implementing measures and other information. The monthly parts cumulate into yearbooks. IALS has this series from 1973 to 2014.
The following are some of the journals in IALS Library which are specifically focused on EU or European law:
Columbia Journal of European Law
Common Market Law Review
European Business Law Review
European Intellectual Property Review
European Law Review
Maastricht Journal of European and Comparative Law
Revue trimestrielle de droit européen
Some of these titles are available online as well as in printed format; there are links to the online versions from the Library Catalogue.
Many non-specialist journals also publish articles on EU law. To conduct a thorough literature search, use the following databases:
- Westlaw UK's Journals section, which covers journals published in the UK plus English-language journals published on the Continent; about a tenth of the journals are available in full on Westlaw and article abstracts are available for the rest.
- FinD-Er, the online catalogue/discovery tool of the European Commission Libraries, a free web resource which indexes journal articles on EU matters.
- Index to Foreign Legal Periodicals: a multi-lingual database indexing journals from non-common law jurisdictions and journals on international and comparative law. IFLP is part of HeinOnline and it gives links to full-text articles if they are available in Hein's journal collections.
- The World Journals and Law Reviews collection on Westlaw International (via Westlaw UK) is a large set of full-text journals published in the US, the UK and other common law jurisdictions
- Index to Legal Periodicals: covers journals published in the US and some other common law jurisdictions (US academics do write about EU law).
Justis, Westlaw and Lexis®Library all include EU official publications, from the 1950s to date, as described in the individual sections above. IALS also subscribes to journal indexes and full-text journal databases, as described in the Journals section, above.
For further information about databases for EU law research, see our Databases guide.
A large amount of EU information can be found on free websites - key sites are listed below. For more EU-related websites, see the Eagle-i portal - select 'European Union' from the Country menu.
- Agreements Database: database of treaties and international agreements produced by the Council of the EU’s Treaty Office. Covers all treaties and international agreements made by the EU since 1989, plus older agreements which are still in force and some important old agreements which are no longer in force. Ratification details are given, plus other status information and the text of each agreement.
- Archive of European Integration: online archive provided by the University of Pittsburgh. Covers EU green papers and white papers, reports by EU institutions and articles and papers produced by university research centres (etc.).
- The European Commission's Competition website: provides full details of individual competition cases, together with competition legislation, official guidelines and the annual Report on Competition Policy.
- Council of the European Union: includes Council press releases, a register of internal documents (with links to the full text in many instances) and general information about the work of the Council of the EU and the European Council.
- Curia: the website of the EU courts. Includes a comprehensive database of cases and numerical case indexes. Also provides the new official electronic-only European Court Reports, the Statute of the Court of Justice, procedural rules, annual reports, news and other information.
EUR-Lex: the EU's law database, containing the Official Journal; primary and secondary legislation; cases; COM documents, including green papers, white papers and proposals for legislation; international agreements; EFTA documents; details of the progress of EU legislation (under 'Legislative Procedures'); and summaries of legislation, by subject. EUR-Lex used to include parliamentary questions as well, but these are now only available on the Europarl website.
Europa Newsroom: the EU's news website, with press releases from all the EU institutions and agencies, plus factsheets and a calendar of events.
- European Commission: this website includes the Commission's Work Programme; sections covering the work of each Directorate-General (department); the Comitology Register (information about the work of committees involved in the implementation of EU legislation); and a register of internal documents.
- European Commission Treaties Office Database: broadly similar to the Council of the EU’s Agreements Database (see above), but excludes agreements between EU Member States and provides summaries and analytical lists.
- European Competition Network: provides relevant legislation and links to the website of each member state’s national competition authority.
- Europarl, the website of the European Parliament: provides information about the work of the EP and its committees; EP minutes and legislative reports; parliamentary questions; press releases; the Legislative Observatory, which monitors the progress of legislation; the Legislative Train Schedule (another information tool concerning legislation in progress); a register of internal documents; and a large collection of reports, briefings and studies produced by the European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS), the EP Think Tank,
- Legislative Observatory (OEIL): a European Parliament database tracking the progress of legislative proposals, with links to legislative documents.
- N-Lex: multi-lingual interface and thesaurus which can be used to search the national legislation websites of of the EU member states. Part of the EUR-Lex website.
- Rapid: the European Commission's press release database (see also EU Newsroom, above).
- Tenders Electronic Daily (TED): five-year archive of the public procurement supplement to the Official Journal (OJ S series).