Katherine Read, August 2017
About the author
This guide was updated by Katherine Read, Principal Library Assistant at the IALS Library.
Click here for Katherine's full profile and contact details.
Reference Desk hours:
Tel (0)20 7862 5790
Related IALS LibGuides
We also recommend the following online research guides for foreign jurisdictions.
The Institute Library has substantial collections of the law of the countries of Western Europe, and Germany is well represented. The legal system is more complicated than that of France, in that Germany is a Federal Republic, and there are legislatures for each of the states (Länder). The number of these increased from eleven to sixteen on reunification with the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) in October 1990. As will be seen, the collections are mainly confined to federal law. Although we do have a small collection of older GDR material, it is not discussed here.
Where appropriate, Internet sources are given at the end of the relevant section. Fuller details of these sources can be found by using the Eagle-i search engine which is also accessible from the IALS Home Page.
Primary sources: codes and statutes
IALS holds an unbroken run of the older Reichsgesetzblatt from 1899 to 1945. This is held in the closed basement.
Its successor, the Bundesgesetzblatt, is published in two parts, Teil I containing laws and ministerial orders, and Teil II international agreements. There is a good annual cumulative index or Fundstellennachweis to each part. The printed volumes are not held at IALS but there is now free public access online to the Bundesgesetzblatt with the Fundstellennachweis. Coverage starts in 1949 but this does not allow any printing, text searching or downloading. An enhanced paid subscription service is available but IALS does not subscribe to this.
Our main source for up to date texts of the Codes is Beck Online, which is provided as part of the Electronic Law Library. It includes comprehensive access to legislation in force (including Sartorius Plus and Schönfelder Plus), and Das Deutsche Bundesrecht (NOMOS).
Sartorius Plus covers constitutional and administrative statutes, international agreements and European law.
Schönfelder Plus is a collection of German Statutes on civil, criminal and procedural law
IALS also has the current edition of Staudinger, J. von. Kommentar zum Bürgerlichen Gesetzbuch mit Einführungsgesetz und Nebensgesetzen available on Juris
Offsite access to Beck Online and Juris is available to IALS and UOL staff and registered students.
Hein's Constitutions of the World provides full text access to the current and historic versions of the German Constitution in English. This includes the Constitutions of the previous GDR and the German Reich. It is accompanied by references to a selection of historical commentaries and articles, many of which are in full text, and links to further internet sources. Offsite access to Hein is available to IALS and UOL staff and registered students.
Free Internet/Electronic Sources of legislation
Gesetze im Internet is the official public information site to make German legislation accessible to the public. It includes a section in English translation.
Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany is available to download from the German Bundestag web site. It is in English, amended to 2010 and free of charge. There are also several other English language documents available to download. These include documents relating to the role of and services offered by the German Bundestag.
Parlamentsspiegel is the shared information system of the regional Länder in Germany. It allows a search for local legislation within the "Gesetzeblätter".
Please see also the Centre for German Legal Information for access to full text German legislation in English. Titles of Acts are given in both languages. A fuller description of this resource is given at the end of this guide (English language internet resources).
Bilaterale Investitionsschutz- und Investitionsförderverträge / Bilateral Treaties on Investment Protection and Promotion. This site provides a listing in both German and English of German bilateral investment treaties (BITS). Treaties published in the Bundesgesetzblatt are available in full text as a photographic image of the page. These are in German only. The site also offers case summaries of German arbitration cases in German and English.
Similar to other Civil law jurisdictions, it is not usually possible to search for German cases by party names. Further details relating to the subject area, date of the decision and the type of Court are required. Judgments are usually only available in German.
The Institute possesses an extensive collection of German law reports, totalling 42 titles of which eight are current. These include the official reports of decisions of the Supreme Court (Bundesgerichtshof) in both civil and criminal cases (BGHZ and BGHSt), and those of the Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht) (BVerfGE). Other series are devoted to special courts.
Entscheidungen des Bundesverwaltungsgerichts (BVerwGE), 1954- (administrative)
Entscheidungen des Bundesarbeitsgerichts (BAGE), 1954- (industrial)
Sammlung der Entscheidungen des Bundesfinanzhofs (BFHE), 1956- (finance)
Entscheidungen des Bundessozialgerichts (BSGE), 1955- (social insurance)
In addition to series of law reports in the usual sense, decisions also appear in both general and specialized legal periodicals. Among the former are Neue Juristische Wochenschrift and Monatsschrift für deutsches Recht , and the latter Gewerblicher Rechtsschutz und Urheberrecht (intellectual property), Die Offentliche Verwaltung (public administrative law) and Die Aktiengesellschaft (company law). Neue Justiz , focuses on the development of law and administration of justice in the new federal Länder, which were originally East Germany prior to reunification.
A sample case reference from one of these journals is BVerfG, NJW 2014, 1581. The case was heard in the German Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht - BVerfG) and reported in Neue Juristische Wochenschrift (NJW) in 2014 (page 1581)
Some of the Journal sources of law reports are also available electronically on Beck. Please refer to the main section on Journals for full details of the titles covered.
Online Sources of German case law
The following sites either give full text reports/press releases of recent cases or refer users to other specific sites to obtain these reports. They also provide background information about the courts.
- The Supreme Court
- The Constitutional Court
- The Administrative Court
- The Social [Insurance] Court
- The Financial Court
- The Federal Labour Court
IALS Library holds a wide selection of German legal sources. A separate section of this guide considers English language sources.
Staudinger, J. von Kommentar zum Bürgerlichen Gesetzbuch. 13th edition, 2006. Walter de Gruyter. (The current edition of this publication is available online to academic users (Juris)
Schönke, A. Strafgesetzbuch: Kommentar. 29th edition, 2014. Beck.
The series of Kurz-Kommentare (short commentaries), published by Beck, reproduce the text of each section of a statute in bold type, followed by commentary and reference to literature and case law. IALS currently holds a wide selection of titles, many of which have been updated recently. These works are more substantial than the series title might suggest. Recent publications in this series and held at IALS include:
Palandt. Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch 76th ed. 2017 Beck
Baumbach, A. Zivilprozessordnung 75th ed. 2017 Beck
Bumiller, U. FamFG: Gesetz Über das Verfahren in Familiensachen 11th ed. 2015 Beck
Tröndle, H. & Fischer T. , Strafgesetzbuch und Nebengesetze 64th ed., 2017 Beck
Meyer-Gossner, L. Strafprozessordnung 59th ed. 2016 Beck
Hüffer, U. Aktiengesetz. 8th ed. 2008 Beck
Hopt, K. Handelsgesetzbuch 37th ed. 2016 Beck
Hueck, G. GmbHG-Gesetz 19th ed. 2010 Beck
Dieterich, T. Erfurter Kommentar zum Arbeitsrecht 17th ed. 2017 Beck
Rosenberg, L ed. . Zivilprozessrecht. 17th ed. 2010 Beck
Kreikebohm, R. et al. Kommentar zum Sozialrecht. 4th ed. 2015 Beck
Köhler, H. & Bornkamm, J. Gesetz gegen den unlauteren Wettbewerb... 35th ed. 2017 Beck
The following printed titles are on current subscription. The list excludes international and comparative law journals. (currency checked August 2017)
Die Aktiengesellschaft 1975, vol. 20-
Archiv des öffentlichen Rechts1948, vol. 74-
Archiv für die civilistische Praxis 1883, vol. 66-
Archiv für Rechts- und Sozialphilosophie 1960, vol. 46-
Archiv für Urheber und Medienrecht 2000, vol. 1- – also its predecessor under various titles.
GRUR: Gewerblicher Rechtsschutz und Urheberrecht 1969, vol. 71-
GRUR Internationaler Teil 1960-
Goltdammers Archiv für Strafrecht 1953-
Jahrbuch des öffentlichen Rechts der Gegenwart 1959, vol. 8-
Juristenzeitung 1951, vol. 6-
Juristische Rundschau 1947-51; 1960-
Juristische Schulung 1967, vol. 7-
Monatsschrift für deutsches Recht, 1947, vol. 1- (some gaps 1950-59)
Neue juristische Wochenschrift 1947-8 (1)-
Neue Justiz (previously East German and now represents the new federal Länder) 1947, vol. 1-
Die öffentliche Verwaltung 1965, vol. 18-
Der Staat 1964, vol. 3-
Das Standesamt 1968, vol. 21-
Wirtschaft und Wettbewerb 1960, vol. 10-
Zeitschrift für das gesamte Familienrecht
Zeitschrift für das gesamte Handelsrecht und Wirtschaftsrecht 1961, vol. 124-
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Strafrechtswissenschaft 1881, vol. 1- (lacks 1933-51)
Zeitschrift für Unternehmens- und Gesellschaftsrecht 1980, vol. 9-
Zeitschrift für Zivilprozess 1950, vol. 64-
Beck online provides full text access to two collections of German online journals, Neue Juristische Wochenschrift Group and Gewerblicher Rechtsschutz Plus. The details of the journal titles are included in the help file which is part of the Electronic Law Library.
Index to Foreign Legal Periodicals (part of Hein) allows searching of articles from Civil law jurisdictions including Germany. It can be searched using keywords in English or German. It does not provide full text access but some of the printed journals are held at IALS. It can be accessed onsite at IALS.
Free Internet Journals
JurPC: Internet Zeitschrift für Rechtsinformatik: A full text journal with an archive of full text German language articles from 1989-1996 and a current section for 1997 to the current year.
Humboldt Forum Recht, produced by students and young lawyers under the guidance of professors at the Humboldt University, Berlin: includes full text articles/features, mainly in German but with occasional contributions in English.
English language works on German law
A good introduction is provided by:
Ardizzoni, A. et al. ed. German tax and business law 2005 (London, Sweet & Maxwell)
Beinert, D. et al. Mergers and acquisitions in Germany 2009 (München Beck)
Bockstiegel, K. Arbitration in Germany. the model law in practice. 2nd ed. 2015 (Kluwer)
Bohlander, M. Principles of German criminal law. 2009 (Oxford Hart)
Bohlander, M. Principles of German criminal procedure. 2012 (Oxford Hart)
Crosby, M.B. The making of a German Constitution: a slow revolution. 2004 (Berg)
Ebke, W.F. & Finkin, W. Introduction to German law 2nd ed. 2005
Fisher, Howard D. The German legal system and legal language: a general survey together with notes and a German vocabulary 6th ed. 2015
Foster, N. German legal system & laws 4th ed. 2010
Geisler, M. & Boewe, M. The German Civil Aviation Act. 2009
Heun, W. The Constitution of Germany: a contextual analysis 2010
Kommers, D. & Miller, R. The Constitutional jurisprudence of the Federal Republic of Germany. 3rd rev. ed. 2012 (Duke University Press)
Lingemann, S. Employment and labor law in Germany. 2012 (Beck)
Reimann, M. An introduction to German law. 2005
Robbers, G. Introduction to German law. 6th ed. 2017
Scherer, P. & Zeller, Sven. Banking regulation in Germany. 2009 (German Law Publishers. GLP)
Wegerich, T. & Freckman, A. The German legal system 3rd ed. 1999
Wendler, M. Key aspects of German business law 2006
Youngs, R. English, French and German comparative law. 3rd ed. 2014
Wirth, G. Corporate law in Germany rev. 3rd ed. 2017
Zimmermann, R. The new German law of obligations 2005
The Civil, Commercial and Criminal Codes have both been issued in translation in recent years:
Goren, S.L and Forrester, I.S. The German Commercial Code as amended to 28th Oct 1994 2nd rev ed. 1998.
Meister, B. et al. The German limited liability company. 7th rev. ed. 2010 Beck
Peltzer, M. German Commercial Code 2nd rev ed. 1993 (parallel German/English text)
Bohlander, M. The German Criminal Code. a modern English translation. 2008 (Oxford Hart)
Statutes on company law are available in parallel German/English text:
Aufenanger, A. The German Trademark Act 3rd ed. 2006 Beck
The German Stock Corporation Act 2000 (Beck/Kluwer)
Müller, K. The German GmbH Law: a guide to the German limited liability company. 2nd ed. 2009. (Beck/Kluwer)
Internet sources in English
The Hauser Globalex site provides English language guides to a wide range of jurisdictions and subject areas covering foreign, international and comparative legal research and tools for building research collections in these areas.
Centre for German Legal Information. This is a new gateway to German law in English. It brings together links to a wide variety of other websites and gives access to court reports, legislation, articles and other legal documents. The legislation can be navigated using either the German title or the English translation. It is comprehensive and currently freely accessible. It is administered by the German Federal Foreign Office.
The German Law Journal is an English language full text journal which focuses on foreign, European and Civil law systems. It started in 2000
Virtuelle Fachbibliothek Recht (Virtual Law Library). This is a gateway to a wide variety of freely available legal internet sources. The background to the project is explained in English but the documents are mainly in German. It also gives access to the catalogues of the State Library of Berlin.
Help with abbreviations
Kirchner: Abkürzungsverzeichnis der Rechtssprache ". 2nd ed. 2013 RF73 KIR.
This gives an alphabetical listing of abbreviations and also arranges them in separate lists under the headings of Official Publications, Journals/Law Reports and Primary/Subsidiary Legislation.