In this Guide
Hester Swift, March 2014
About the author
This guide was created by Hester Swift, Foreign & International Law Librarian at the IALS Library.
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This research guide covers Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark and Iceland, five countries with close cultural, historical and administrative links.
The Nordic region has a somewhat complicated political history, with Denmark and Sweden dominating for many centuries. Norway in its modern form gained independence in 1905 (it had previously been independent in the Middle Ages, until 1380). Finland declared independence in 1917 and Iceland attained full independence in 1944. Denmark, Sweden and Norway are constitutional monarchies, while Iceland and Finland are republics. Finland has two official languages: Finnish and Swedish.
The Nordic legal systems can be classed as a branch of the civil law family, although some scholars put them in their own category, distinct from civil law, common law and other types of legal system. Roman law has had less influence in the region than in Continental Europe, and the Nordic states do not have systematic codes comparable to those of jurisdictions such as France and Germany.
There has been a tradition of legislative unification, or cooperation, in the Nordic region since the latter part of the nineteenth century. Norway, Denmark and Sweden began the process and Finland became involved later; Iceland has participated to a lesser extent in the drafting of uniform laws, but has often enacted the laws agreed on by the other four states. The work continues under the aegis of the Nordic Council, which was established in 1952.
Three of the Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland and Sweden, are members of the European Union. Both Norway and Iceland apply a large proportion of EU laws, since they are members of the European Economic Area (EEA).
The Institute of Advanced Legal Studies Library collects both primary and secondary legal material for Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden; very little is held relating to Iceland, however.
HeinOnline's World Constitutions Illustrated provides English translations of the current and past constitutions of all the Nordic countries, together with associated laws, scholarly commentary and other documents.
Norway's constitution was adopted in 1814. An English version, as amended, is available on the website of the Norwegian Parliament, the Storting. The constitution is also included - in Norwegian - in Norges Lover, a set of revised Norwegian laws, successive editions of which are held at IALS.
Sweden's Constitution is made up of four fundamental laws: the Instrument of Government (1974), the Act of Succession (1810), the Freedom of the Press Act (1949) and the Fundamental Law on Freedom of Expression (1991). These are accompanied by the Parliament Act (1974), which is not classed as a fundamental law, but has superior status to ordinary laws. All are available in English on the website of the Swedish Parliament, or Riksdag.
Finland enacted a new constitution in 1999. There is an English-language introduction to it on the Finnish Ministry of Justice website, with a link to an English translation (dated 2012) of the Constitution itself on FinLex. Previously Finland had several constitutional laws, like Sweden.
Denmark's Constitution was adopted in 1953. An annotated English version, published in 2013, is available on the website of the Danish Parliament (Folketing).
Iceland's Constitution dates from 1944. An English translation amended to 1999 is available on the website of the Icelandic government. A new draft constitution was passed to the Icelandic Parliament (Althing) by the Constitutional Council in 2011, but, at the time of writing, has not been adopted.
Legislation - Norway
Norwegian statutes (lover) and regulations (forskrifter) are cited by title, date and number. The preferred form of citation for statutes is shown below: -
Lov 24. juni 1988 nr. 64 om utlendingers adgang til riket (utlendingsloven)
Lov 24. mars 2003 nr. 15 om beskyttelse av design (designloven)
(Note that “Lov” in the examples above is only capitalized because it is at the start of a line: the only Norwegian law that is capitalized is Grunnloven, the Constitution.)
Statutes may be referred to using abbreviations, such as 'al' for arveloven (Inheritance Act). Abbreviations can be looked up in Knophs oversikt over Norges rett, or in Norges lover, both held at IALS; some Norwegian abbreviations are also listed online by Scandinavian Studies in Law.
Norway does not have a set of codes comparable to those of France, Germany, Italy and so on. However, some of the most important statutes are often described as codes, for example lov av 22. mai 1902 nr 10 almindelig borgerlig straffelov (straffeloven) (Penal Code); lov av 22. mai 1981 Nr 25 om rettergangsmåten i straffesaker (straffeprosessloven) (Criminal Procedure Code); lov av 17. juni 2005 nr 90 om mekling og rettergang i sivile tvister (tvisteloven) (Civil Procedure Code).
IALS Library's main source of Norwegian statutes is Norges lover, a one-volume collection of revised primary legislation produced by the University of Oslo's Law Faculty. It is published annually by Fagbokforlaget. IALS has the current edition and selected previous editions going back to 1963. We do not have current Norwegian regulations, but they are available on the internet (as are statutes - see below).
Limited runs of two official statutory publications are available at IALS:
- Norsk lovtidend (published 1877 onwards, but held at IALS 1949–62 only; available at the British Library). This is the Norwegian official gazette. Since 1974, national statutes, ordinances and regulations have appeared in avd. I (part 1) and local statutes, ordinances and regulations in avd.2. Before 1974, part 1 had statutes, ordinances and regulations arranged by subject and part 2 had the same legislation in chronological order.
- Lover: vedtatt på det…ordentlige storting. Published annually, at the end of each parliamentary session, this contains the text of each new law, plus amendments to old laws. Held at IALS 1970/1971 - 1980/1981 only (with gaps).
IALS also has a five-volume set of ancient Norwegian laws, Norges gamle love indtil 1387 (published by C. Gröndahl, 1846-95).
Statutes and regulations are available free on the Lovdata website, as amended. The official gazette, Norsk lovtidende, is also on Lovdata (2001 onwards). Lovdata is a private foundation which was established by the Norwegian Ministry of Justice and the Faculty of Law at the University of Oslo.
Oslo's Faculty of Law provides English translations of hundreds of Norwegian statutes and regulations.
Norsk lovkommentar , a collection of Norwegian legislation with commentary, is available online via Gyldendal's Rettsdata service, for a fee, but IALS does not subscribe.
Legislation - Sweden
Swedish statutes and regulations are published in the series Svensk författningssamling (SFS), or Swedish Code of Statutes. Each instrument is cited by year and number, for example:
Lag om Diskrimineringsombudsmannen SFS 2008: 568
IALS Library's main source of Swedish legislation is the one-volume compilation of laws in force, Sveriges Rikes Lag. It is published annually by Norstedts / Wolters Kluwer Scandinavia and IALS has it from 1948 onwards (with some gaps).
IALS has Svensk författningssamling from 1955 to 1990 only (plus an index going up to 2004), but it is available online.
Revised legislation with commentary is found in the three-volume work Karnov...svensk lagsamling med kommentarer, published by Thomson, but this is not held at IALS.
IALS has an up-to-date looseleaf collection of translated commercial laws, Swedish Commercial Legislation (Norstedts / Wolters Kluwer).
The concise way in which Swedish legislation is drafted means that the travaux préparatoires (preparatory documents) are an important tool for interpretation. They are published in one of two series: either Statens offentliga utredningar (SOU) or Departementsserien (Ds). IALS has a few issues of SOU but none of Ds, but they are available online as part of the Swedish Parliament's Documents and Laws database. Summaries of the travaux for selected laws can be found in part II of the series Nytt juridiskt arkiv, which is in IALS Library up to 1990.
Svensk författningssamling is available free on the official Swedish law website, Lagrummet. For laws as originally published, choose 'Svensk författningssamling (SFS) i tryckt format' (1998 onwards); for laws as amended, choose 'Svensk författningssamling (SFS) i fulltext'.
Preparatory legislative material is available in the Swedish Parliament's Documents and Laws database. his includes the series Statens offentliga utredningar (SOU) and Departementsserien (Ds); to limit a search to one of these series, use the 'Dokumentyp' filters.
Notisum provides a large amount of free information, including legislation (under 'Lagboken'), but some of its data is only available by subscription.
Selected Swedish statutes translated into English can be found on the websites of the Riksdag, the Ministry of Justice (laws on migration and criminal law and the judicial system) and the Ministry of Employment.
IALS does not subscribe to any Swedish kaw databases, but the databases in existence include Infotorg Juridik and Karnov-Plus.
Legislation - Finland
IALS Library's source of Finnish legislation is Suomen laki, which is published annually by Talentum. A collection of Finnish legislation as amended, it is very widely used by Finnish lawyers, although it is not an official publication. Suomen laki has been published since 1955; it is in IALS from 1995 onwards, with some gaps. We also have two old copies of the Swedish-language version, Finlands lag.
Finnish primary and secondary legislation is published by the Ministry of Justice in the legal gazette, Suomen säädöskokoelma (Statutes of Finland, Finnish-language edition) / Finlands författningssamling (Swedish-language edition); neither edition is held at IALS. Official notices, circulars and similar documents are published in the official gazette, Virallinen lehti / Officiella tidningen (not held at IALS).
Finnish acts and decrees are cited by year and number, e.g. 503/2008 Laki rahanpesun ja terrorismin rahoittamisen estämisestä ja selvittämisestä (Act on Money Laundering and the Financing of Terrorism Prevention and Investigation).
The judicial procedure chapter (Rättegångsbalk) of the general Swedish code of 1734 is still in force in Finland. It applies to both civil and criminal matters. There is also a penal code (Rikoslaki), act 39/1889.
FINLEX, a free website provided by the Ministry of Justice and Edita Publishing, provides acts and decrees both in their original form and as amended. Secondary legislation is also available. FINLEX includes English translations of many acts and decrees.
Suomen laki is available online, for a fee, but IALS does not subscribe.
Edilex, a subscription service produced by Edita Publishing, includes legislation as amended. IALS does not subscribe.
Legislation - Denmark
IALS Library's main source of Danish legislation is Karnovs lovsamling, an exhaustive compilation of laws ('love') and regulations ('bekendtgørelser') in force, with annotations, published annually by Thomson Reuters.
Danish legislation, including consolidated laws, can be found on the official Retsinformation website. It can be searched by title, number and/or year; select 'Regler' for laws, regulations, official guidance, circulars and treaties.
The Danish legal gazette is called Lovtidende; it publishes both laws and regulations. IALS has it from 1939 to 1959; from 2008 onwards it is electronic-only. It can be searched online by title, number and/or year; to browse by year, click on 'Årgange'. Most legislation appears in Afdeling A (part A); fiscal and some other instruments are published in Afdeling B; there is also an Afdeling C, containing treaties. Frequent official consolidations of legislation, called 'lovbekendtgørelser', appear in Lovtidende, as well as the original texts.
Administrative circulars and official guidance are published in the series Ministerialtidende, which IALS holds from 1965 to 1974. Like Lovtidende, it is electronic-only from 2008 onwards.
Danish acts are cited by number, date and title, for example: Lov nr. 1003 af 8.10.2008 om finansiel stabilitet. Abbreviations are often used for major acts, such as Kbl for Koebeloven (Sale of Goods Act) and Aftl for Aftaleloven (Contracts Act). Danish legal abbreviations (forkortelser) can be looked up on the Themis website, which is the work of the lawyer Ulrik Grønborg.
Denmark has a criminal code (Straffeloven). There is also a procedural code (Retsplejeloven), covering both civil and criminal proceedings. These codes and their annual consolidations are published in Lovtidende. IALS has an English translation of the criminal code and other criminal legislation: Malene Frese Jensen's The principal Danish criminal acts (3rd edn, DJØF 2006).
Selected unofficial translations of Danish legislation are available via the University of Copenhagen's Danish Law in English webpage.
Legislation - Iceland
Icelandic legislation is not held at IALS, but some can be found on the internet (see below). For other libraries' holdings, see the FLAG Foreign Law Guide.
Acts are cited by number and year, for example the Competition Act is Lög [act] nr. 44/2005.
Iceland has a criminal code, the General Penal Code, Lög nr.19/1940.
Legislation is published in the Icelandic official gazette, Stjórnartídindi. There are three sections: A for acts of parliament, B for delegated legislation (regulations and decrees) and C for treaties. IALS does not subscribe.
A consolidated set of legislation is published every few years by the Ministry of Justice and Ecclesiastical Affairs (Dóms- og kirkjumálaráduneytid), under the title Lagasafn. IALS does not have it.
Electronic sources of Icelandic legislation
Acts are available on the website of the Icelandic Parliament, Althingi. To browse by number and year, click on 'Lagasafn radad eftir laganúmerum'; to browse alphabetically, click on 'Lagasafn radad eftir lagaheitum'.
The official gazette is available on the internet: parts A and B from 2001 onwards, part C from 1995 onwards.
English translations of a large number of can be found on the websites of Icelandic government departments: see the Government Offices of Iceland portal.
Law reports - Nordic region
There are two series of law reports covering decisions from all five Nordic countries:
- Nordisk domssamling (Nordic court reports), published in Oslo by Universitetsforlaget; whole series in IALS (1958 onwards).
- Nordiske domme i sjøfartsanliggender (Nordic decisions on maritime matters), published in Oslo by Nordisk Skibsrederforening; not in IALS.
Law reports - Norway
An English-language description of the Norwegian judicial system can be found on the Norwegian courts website.
Almost all decisions of the Norwegian Supreme Court (Norges Høyesterett) are published in Norsk Retstidende (cited as Rt). The series is held at IALS from vol.115 (1950) to vol.130 (1965), with some gaps, and from 1999 onwards.
Selected decisions of the lower courts are published in Rettens Gang (cited as RG); this series is not held at IALS Library.
There are also law reports focusing on particular areas of law, for example Dommer, uttalelser m.v. i skattesaker og skattespørsmål (Decisions and rulings etc. on tax matters; not in IALS).
Cases are cited by law report abbreviation, year of publication and page number, for example 'Rt 2007 s. 4145' (s. for side, meaning page).
Cases from the last four months, in the Supreme Court (Høyesterett) and the six appeal courts (lagmannsrettane, are available free on the Lovdata website. There are also a few judgments translated into English on this site, dating from 2003 onwards. The subscription version of Lovdata includes cases from 1945 onwards (IALS does not subscribe).
Law reports - Sweden
The Swedish courts website provides an English-language introduction to the judicial system. Swedish cases are cited in the same way as Norwegian ones, e.g. NJA 2006 s.657.
Decisions of the Supreme Court (Högsta domstolen) are published by Norstedt in Nytt juridiskt arkiv: Avd. I (part I), which is cited as NJA. The entire series is held at IALS (1874 - ).
Decisions of the six courts of appeal (Hovrätterna) from 1981 onwards appear in Rättsfall från hovrätterna (RH); this series is not held at IALS. Unitl 1980, court of appeal cases were published in the law journal Svensk juristtidning (SvJT), which IALS holds from vol. 3 (1918) onwards.
Cases from the Supreme Administrative Court appear in Regeringsrättens årsbok, those from the Labour Court in Arbetsdomstolens domar and those from the Market Court in Marknadsdomstolens avgöranden. IALS does not subscribe to any of these series.
Selected Supreme Court decisions (avgöranden) are available on the Court's website from 2003 onwards. The official Lagrummet website includes a searchable database of case summaries, covering the Supreme Court, appeal courts and other higher courts.
The commercial database Notisum provides a large collection of free case summaries from the Supreme Court, appeal courts and special courts; the dates available vary from court to court. The case summaries can be accessed via the Notisums Lagbok page: click on Regelsamling, then on Rättsfall and select the required court. Much more case law is available to subscribers. Non-subscribers can order individual cases from Notisum for a fee.
The Rättsbanken subscription database, mentioned above, also includes case law. IALS subscribes to neither Notisum nor Rättsbanken.
Law reports - Finland
An English-language introduction to Finland's judicial system is available on the Finnish courts website.
Supreme Court cases are cited by the abbreviation 'KKO' ('HD' in Swedish), the year and the case number, for example 'KKO:2007:211'. Before the mid-1980s the part number of the Yearbook is also given, with hyphens instead of colons, for example 'KKO:1977-II-76'. Supreme Administrative Court cases are cited by the exact date and the case number, for example '29.12.2006/3616'. For cases published in the Supreme Administrative Court's yearbook, citations take the form 'KHO: 2005:87'.
The Supreme Court ('Korkein oikeus' in Finnish; 'Högsta domstolen' in Swedish) publishes selected decisions in its yearbook, Korkeimman Oikeuden ratkaisuja (Swedish title Avgöranden av Högsta domstolen). The Supreme Administrative Court ('Korkein hallinto-oikeus', or 'Högsta forvaltningsdomstolen') has its own yearbook: Korkeimman hallinto-oikeuden vuosikirja (Swedish title Högsta förvaltningsdomstolens årsbok). IALS holds neither series.
Finnish court decisions may be found at IALS in the journals Defensor legis (in IALS 1920-1958 and 1960 onwards) and Lakimies (in IALS 1962 onwards).
The free FINLEX website, run by the Ministry of Justice and Edita publishing, includes a large collection of cases from the Supreme Court, Supreme Administrative Court, appeal courts, regional administrative courts, Market Court, Labour Court and Insurance Court. FINLEX also provides a database of references to case law in secondary legal literature.
The Edilex subscription database, mentioned above, includes case law.
Law reports - Denmark
English-language information about the judicial system can be found on the Danish Courts website.
The main printed source of Danish cases is the weekly title Ugeskrift for retsvæsen, cited as UfR, or U. Originally published by Gad, it is now a Thomson title. It includes all decisions of the Supreme Court (Højesteret), together with selected decisions of the two high courts (Østre Landsret and Vestre Landsret) and the Maritime and Commercial Court (Sø- og Handelsretten). IALS has virtually the entire UfR series (1874 onwards; some issues missing in the 1920s, 30s and 40s).
Tax cases are reported in Tidsskrift for skatter og afgifter and cases from the labour courts in Arbejdsretligt Tidsskrift (neither of which is in IALS) .
The Supreme Court (Højesteret) website makes available the Court's decisions from September 2009 onwards (it also has summaries from June to August 2009).
The Maritime and Commercial Court (Sø- og Handelsretten) has a case database on its website (2002 - ).
Retsinformation.dk includes a database of administrative decisions (afgørelser) going back many years.
Forsikrings- og erstatningsretlig domssamling (FED), a collection of insurance and compensation decisions, allows non-subscribers to search the database and download up to three cases.
An online version of the law report Ugeskrift for retsvæsen is available from Thomson, by subscription. IALS does not subscribe to any Danish case databases.
Law reports - Iceland
Icelandic law reports are not held at IALS. For printed sources in other UK libraries, see the FLAG Foreign Law Guide.
All decisions of the Supreme Court are published, together with the first instance cases, in the series Hœstaréttardómar (Supreme Court Decisions).
Supreme Court decisions can be found on the Court's website and district court decisions are available on the website of the Judicial Council. Some information about the Supreme Court of Iceland (Hæstiréttur Íslands), including its composition and procedures, can be found in English on the Court's website.
IALS Library holds books about the law of the Nordic countries in the vernacular languages, in English and in other European languages (notably German). However, the collection includes very little which is solely about Icelandic law.
A selection of English-language titles are listed below; refer to the Library Catalogue for our full holdings, in all languages.
Zweigert, Konrad, and Kötz, Hein, Introduction to comparative law, (3rd edn, OUP, 1998), chapter 19
The Nordic contracts act : essays in celebration of its one hundredth anniversary. Torgny Håstad (ed.). (DJØF Publishing, 2015).
Asland, John, et al, Nordic cohabitation law (Intersentia, 2015)
Scandinavian women's law in the 21st century, Ruth Nielsen and Christina D. Tvarnø (eds.) (DJØF Publishing, 2012)
Crime and justice in Scandinavia, Michael Tonry and Tapio Lappi-Seppälä (ed.s) ;(University of Chicago Press, c2011)
Nergelius, Joakim, Constitutionalism: new challenges: European law from a Nordic perspective (Martinus Nijhoff 2008)
Hansen, Jesper Lau, Nordic company law: the regulation of public companies in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden (DJØF, 2003)
Redden, Kenneth Robert (ed.), Modern legal systems cyclopedia (W.S. Hein, 1984 - ), vol. 4, ch.6
Aune, Helga, Norwegian employment law : an overview (Damm, 2008)
Bø, Bente Puntervold, Immigration control, law, and morality : visa policies towards visitors and asylum seekers : an evaluation of the Norwegian visa policies within a legal and moral frame of reference (Unipub, c.2002)
Hellum, Anne (ed.), Birth law (Scandinavian University Press,1993)
Redden, Kenneth Robert (ed.), Modern legal systems cyclopedia (W.S. Hein,1984 - ), vol. 4, ch.10
Westerlund, Li, Intellectual property law in Sweden (Kluwer Law International, c2012)
Hobér, Kaj, International commercial arbitration in Sweden (Oxford University Press, 2011)
Helmström, Carl, Corporations and partnerships in Sweden (Wolters Kluwer Law & Business, c2011)
Swedish legal system, Michael Bogdan (ed.) ( Norstedts juridik, 2010)
Carlson, Laura, The fundamentals of Swedish law: a guide for foreign lawyers and students (Studentlitteratur, 2009)
Eklund, Ronnie, Swedish labour and employment law: cases and materials (Iustus Förlag, 2008)
Lindner, Michael G., et al, Swedish commercial legislation (Norstedts Juridik, c.2007- )
Redden, Kenneth Robert (ed.), Modern legal systems cyclopedia (W.S. Hein, 1984 - ), vol. 4, ch.4
Husa, Jaakko, The constitution of Finland: a contextual analysis (Hart, 2010)
Talus, Kim, Energy law in Finland (Kluwer Law International, c2010)
Niemi-Kiesiläinen, Johanna, Civil procedure in Finland (/Kluwer Law International, c2010)
Pylkkänen, Anu, Trapped in equality: women as legal persons in the modernisation of Finnish law (Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, [c.2009])
Pöyhönen, Juha, An Introduction to Finnish law, 2nd ed. (Kauppakaari, 2002)
Bruun, Niklas, Intellectual property law in Finland (Kauppakaari, 2001)
Redden, Kenneth Robert (ed.), Modern legal systems cyclopedia (W.S. Hein, 1984 - ) vol. 3, ch. 2(A), section 2
Langsted, Lars Bo, Criminal law in Denmark (Kluwer Law International, 2011)
Pedersen, Hans Viggo Godsk, Family law in Denmark (DJØF, c.2011)
Blume, Peter, Legal method in Danish law (Jurist- og økonomforbundets forlag, 2011)
Werlauff, Erik, Civil procedure in Denmark (Kluwer Law International, c2010)
Hasselbalch, Ole, Labour law in Denmark (Kluwer Law International, 2010)
Iversen, Bent, Danish business law (DJØF, 2010)
Redden, Kenneth Robert (ed.), Modern legal systems cyclopedia (W.S. Hein, 1984 - ) vol. 4, ch.4(A)
Elín Blöndal, Labour law in Iceland (Wolters Kluwer Law and Business, c.2012)
Stefan Mar Stefansson, The EEA agreement and its adoption into Icelandic law (Universitetsforlaget, c.1997)
Eser, Albin, et al (ed.s), Old ways and new needs in criminal legislation: documentation of a German-Icelandic Colloquium on the Development of Penal Law in General and Economic Crime in Particular (Max-Planck-Institut für Ausländisches und Internationales Strafrecht, 1989)
IALS subscribes to the following Nordic law journals (this list excludes e-journals and a few very old print series - see Catalogue for full holdings):
Nordisk administrativt tidsskrift, 1960 onwards
Nordisk tidsskrift for kriminalvidenskab, 1967-68, 1975 onwards
Scandinavian studies in criminology, 1965-1993
Scandinavian studies in law, whole series,1957 onwards
Tidsskrift for Rettsvitenskap (TFR), whole series, 1888 onwards
NIR: Nordiskt immateriellt rättsskydd, 1965 onwards
Lov og rett: norsk jurdisk tidssdrift (LoR), whole series, 1962 onwards
Juridisk tidskrift vid Stockholms universitet:JT, 1991/92, 1997/98 onwards
Advokaten (formerly Tidskrift för sveriges advokatsamfund), 1936 onwards
Svensk juristtidning,1918 onwards
Förvaltningsrättslig tidskrift, whole series, 1938 onwards
Lakimies 1962 onwards; published by the Finnish Bar Association; abstracts (and some whole articles) in English
Defensor Legis, 1920 onwards
Tidskrift utgiven av Juridiska Föreningen i Finland (JFT), 1951 onwards
Juristen: udgivet af Danmarks jurist-og okonomforbund, 1938 onwards (see Library catalogue for title variations)
The Library does not subscribe to any Icelandic law journals.
Research guides and bibliographies
New York University's Globalex website has research guides for each Nordic country.
Winterton, Jules, and Moys, Elizabeth, Information sources in law, 2nd ed. (1997), includes a chapter on each country.
The Royal Danish Library's website includes a searchable web version of the Dansk Juridisk Bibliography (Danish Legal Bibliography), 1988- .
The University of Bergen Law Library has compiled a bibliography of Norwegian law in foreign languages, last updated in 2009. See also: Strømø, Hanne E, and Kongshavn, Halvor, Nordic legal festschriften: a bibliography of the essays written in English, German and French until 1999 (Det Juridske Fakultetsbibliotek, 1999).
The Foreign Law Guide database is available at IALS (see Electronic Law Library). It includes outlines of the legal systems of each of the five Nordic countries, together with information about their legal publications and websites. It mentions English-language sources, where available.
The University of Copenhagen's law library includes links to Danish and other Nordic law websites it is research guides to Danish and Nordic law. Both of these research guides are mainly in Danish, with a section in English.
(N.B. Electronic sources of legislation and case law are detailed in the relevant sections above)