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Canada archives guide: Canada

Archives Guides

IALS Archives subject guide: records in the IALS Archives
Legal Education in Canada 

The records below, which hold specific references to Canada, were transferred to the Records of Legal Education Archives (now subsumed into the IALS Archives) by individuals and organisations with a particular interest in legal education, both the UK and abroad.  A particular focus of several collections was on legal education in the Empire and later the Commonwealth, including Canada.  

All the records, other than those containing personal data, may be viewed by prior appointment in the IALS Library. Closed items are designated in red. Requests for an appointment to examine any of the records should be made to the Archivist (  

Related material: though there are few specific references to Canada in the records of the Archives, there is doubtless much information of relevance in the records covering the Commonwealth  generally.  For these records see the IALS Archives Subject Guide: Colonialism, Decolonisation and the Law. To browse the Archives catalogues for more information see this link: 

Access: some items are closed to public access as they contain personal data.  Item descriptions are nevertheless included in this guide as indicative of the various organisations’ work relating to Canadian law.

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Commonwealth Legal Association (CLEA): Records, 1971-1995

Commonwealth Legal Association (CLEA): Records, 1971-1995

Administrative history: the Commonwealth Legal Education Association (CLEA) was founded during the Fourth Commonwealth Law Conference in New Delhi in 1971.   The idea was initiated by Indian lawyer Dr Laxmi Singhvi, CLEA's first chairman.  The Association's objects were to foster high standards of legal education and research in Commonwealth countries: to build up contacts between interested individuals and organizations, and to disseminate information and literature concerning legal education and research.

The CLEA's structure, objectives and functions are set out in its Constitution, adopted soon after its foundation.  Membership is open to individuals, schools of law and other institutions concerned with legal education and research.  Patrons are appointed from various Commonwealth countries.  The affairs of the Association are managed by an Executive Committee, drawn from the Commonwealth regions, which meets annually: its actions are reviewed at 5 yearly General Meetings, the first of which was held in Edinburgh during the Fifth Commonwealth Law Conference in 1977.  There is an Advisory Panel in the United Kingdom.  The administration of the Association was carried out by a chairman and two secretaries, one in London and one abroad.  In 1990 the office of chairman was replaced by a president and executive chairperson (since renamed vice president).  The President may be elected from any part of the Commonwealth: the Vice President must be established in the UK.  In 1994 a South Asian regional chapter was formed.

The records: though there is only one entry listed below, much of the CLEA collection refers to colonial studies and students, some of whom came from Canada.  For the full catalogue see 

Selected items:

CLEA 01: Secretary's Correspondence and Papers, alphabetically arranged, 1971-1991


Reference Title Dates
  [Overseas legal education]:-  
CLEA 01/36 Canada: reports, articles, correspondence 1983-1986

Sir William Dale: Papers, 1930s-2003

Biographical history: Sir William Leonard Dale (1906–2000), lawyer and civil servant, was born on 17 June 1906 at The Rectory, Preston in Holderness, in the East Riding of Yorkshire, the elder son and eldest of the three children of the Revd William Dale (1852–1934), Church of England clergyman, and his wife, Rose (1870–1963), daughter of Herbert Leonard, farmer, of Marfleet, Yorkshire.

After Hymers College, Hull, Dale entered into articles with solicitors in the city. After an external London University LLB, he read for the bar, supporting himself on a Gray's Inn scholarship and occasional appointments as a suburban church organist. Call in 1931 was followed by a London pupillage, practice briefly on the north-eastern circuit, and a return to chambers in the Temple. He then joined an English solicitor practising in Jaffa. In 1935 he applied for a legal post in the Colonial Office. On 12 September 1936 he married his second cousin, Emma Patricia Goulton (Biddy) Leonard (b. 1910/11), daughter of Thomas Goulton Leonard, stockbroker, but she was soon diagnosed as having multiple sclerosis and the marriage ended in divorce in 1943. On 30 November 1948 he married Elizabeth Romeyn Elwyn (1922-2002), an American architect, but that marriage, too, was childless, and they were divorced in 1953. She subsequently married the architect Henry Thomas (Jim) Cadbury-Brown.

Dale moved to an administrative position in the wartime Ministry of Supply in 1940, returning to the Colonial Office after VJ-day to the legal complexities of Raja Brooke's cession of Sarawak to the British crown. He was made CMG in 1951, in which year he fielded a request to identify a legal adviser for the new kingdom of Libya by promptly volunteering himself. He returned in 1953, despite the Libyan government's entreaties to stay on as a Supreme Court judge.

A move to the Ministry of Education in 1954 produced a change of work. But Lord Hailsham's arrival as minister in 1957 led to clashes, to which Dale responded by declaring himself semi-redundant, and taking up work for half the day at the Foreign Office. In 1961 he became the legal adviser to the Commonwealth Relations Office (CRO), and in the following year he was seconded to the central Africa office to help deal with the break-up of the Central African Federation. He was promoted KCMG in 1965, and retired a year later, a period which spanned the CRO's amalgamation with his old department, but not the final merger into a single Foreign and Commonwealth Office. In London on 17 June 1966, his last day in service, he married Gloria Finn (b. 1922), textile designer, of Washington, DC, daughter of Charles Spellman, stockbroker. They had one daughter, Rosemary.

A spell in the law officers' department (1967–68) was followed by a decision to move to Beirut as general counsel to the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestinian refugees. Return home in 1973 opened the most productive and creative phase of Dale's legal life, and a working partnership with Kutlu Fuad, head of the legal division in the Commonwealth Secretariat, which had been founded in Dale's CRO days. First came a study of how to provide competent Commonwealth draftsmen, commuted into a fuller investigation into what legislative style would best meet the needs of newly independent countries, and unlocking Dale's interest in simpler approaches to writing statutes. Then came the call to take over the Government Legal Advisers course (another Dale–CRO creation), through which over the next quarter-century Dale persuaded eminent British figures into nurturing the practical skills of generations of overseas lawyers. The final flowering came in the decision of London University's Institute of Advanced Legal Studies (IALS) to found a centre for legislative studies in Dale's honour on his ninetieth birthday. The mark of his continuing vigour and determination lay in his becoming its founding Director and establishing a firm base for its activity before stepping down shortly before his death.

Selected items:

DALE 01/01: Professional correspondence of Sir William Dale, 1954-1999

Reference Title Dates
DALE 01/01/06

Correspondence and draft annotated report relating to Professor Mr S L F Baron van Wijnbergen, 1984. Together with a photocopy of the [printed version of the report in Dutch?], December 1984.  Including:

  • Letter in French to Dale from Richard Tremblay, Ministère de la Justice, Gouvernement du Québec, 4 March 1992.

DALE 04/02: Research papers compiled by Sir William Dale, 1961-1995

Reference Title Dates
DALE 04/02/04

‘A Commentary on the study paper Drafting Laws in French prepared by the Law Reform Commission of Canada’, typescript report by [Elmer] A Driedger, c1985.  Together with a covering letter from Driedger to Sir William Dale, 7 February 1985.


International Association of Law Libraries (IALL): Archives

International Association of Law Libraries (IALL): Archives

Administrative History: the International Association of Law Libraries was founded in 1959 with the purpose of promoting and supporting the work of Law Libraries and related agencies, in order to facilitate research and use of their materials on a multinational and co-operative basis. Its functions and activities have developed to include professional education and development, by means of annual courses, participation in major conferences including the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA), the publication of the International Journal of Legal Information, and other scholarly publications. It also awards scholarship bursaries for and makes an annual award for the best legal website.

Selected items:

IALL 13: IALL Annual Courses and Conferences, 1979-2018

Reference Title Dates
IALL 13/23 31st Annual Course on International Law Librarianship, Toronto, Sept 30 – Oct 4, 2012: ‘Canada: the Cultural Mosaic and International Law’: programme; list of attendees 2012

Institute of Advanced Legal Studies: Institutional Archives, 1934-2016

Administrative History: in 1932 a Legal Education Committee under the Chairmanship of Lord Atkin was set up to consider the organisation of legal education in England and to make recommendations as to further provision for advanced research in legal studies.  The Committee’s report in 1934 included a recommendation that an Institute of Advanced Legal Studies be established in London.  In 1938 another Committee, chaired by Lord Macmillan, was set up to find a practical means of effecting this recommendation.  The Institute of Advanced Legal Studies (IALS) was established in 1946 as part of the University of London.  Its aims were "the prosecution and promotion of legal research and the training of graduate students in its principles and methods" (39th Annual Report, 1985/86).  Since its inception the scope of the Institute has expanded considerably, with sponsorship of and support for many research projects and the provision of facilities for other research bodies and for conferences, seminars and workshops.  The Library provides facilities for academic and research staff and postgraduate research students from universities all over the world, and is one of the world's largest legal research libraries. 

Selected items:

IALS 03: Correspondence and Papers of IALS Secretary/Librarian 1946-1984

Reference Title Dates
IALS 03/11 Correspondence with the Library, Osgoode Hall Law School, Canada 1949-1961

Institute of Advanced Legal Studies Library (IALSLIB): Manuscript Material relating to Legal Education and Research

Institute of Advanced Legal Studies Library (IALSLIB): Manuscript Material relating to Legal Education and Research

Scope and content: the mss comprise a collection of donated or purchased items relating to legal education and research, 1870-1936. Several are undated.  In some cases the provenance is unknown, as the transaction, whether by purchase or donation, was unrecorded; in some other cases the author of the documents is also unknown.

Selected items:

IALSLIB 12 INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANISATION, Montreal, Canada - gramophone record, 1956

Archives reference Original Library reference Title Dates
IALSLIB 12 R/A ICA INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANISATION, Montreal, Canada: gramophone record, 78 rpm, entitled “The spelling alphabet, 1/3/56: gramophone record referred to in Pt III of Annex10 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation”.  1956

International Law Association (ILA): Archives, 1866-2019

International Law Association (ILA): Archives, 1866-2019

Administrative History: the International Law Association (ILA) was founded in Brussels in 1873 as an association 'to consist of Jurists, Economists, Legislators, Politicians and others taking an interest in the question of the reform and Codification of Public and Private International Law, the Settlement of Disputes by Arbitration, and the assimilation of the laws, practice and procedure of the Nations in reference to such laws' (afternoon sitting of the first conference of members, 19 November 1873: reference ILA 01/01). It was initially called the Association for the Reform and Codification of the Law of Nations, changing its title to the International Law Association in the early 20th century. 

The Association was to consist of a Council of officers comprising a President, vice presidents, secretaries and other members of the Conference (called the Bureau), plus a series of local, departmental or provincial committees who were to report to the President. These committees have since expanded into International Committees. The ILA's activities are now organised by an Executive Council, assisted by the Headquarters Secretariat in London. Membership of the Association, at present about 4,200, is spread among branches throughout the world and ranges from lawyers in private practice, academia, industrial and financial spheres, and representatives of bodies such as shipping and arbitration organisations and chambers of commerce. The ILA has consultative status, as an international non-governmental organisation, with a number of the United Nations specialised agencies. 

The ILA's objectives are pursued primarily through the work of its International Committees and the focal point of its activities is the series of Biennial Conferences. These conferences, of which over 70 have so far been held in different locations throughout the world, provide a forum for the comprehensive discussion and endorsement of the work of the committees.

The records: the material below has been selected from the ILA archive due to its particular relevance to law in colonial jurisdictions.  Some items are closed to public access under The Data Protection Act. Closed items are designated in red.

Selected items:

ILA 02: Conference, 1874-2014

Reference Title Dates

ILA 02/38

Conference at Montreal, 1982. Administrative documents and correspondence, including preliminary programme and post-conference report. Reports presented at the 60th Conference by the following committees:

  • International Committee on Human Rights;
  • Committee on International Terrorism;
  • Committee on International Monetary Law;
  • Committee on International Water Resource Law;
  • Committee on Legal Aspects of the Conservation of the Environment;
  • International Criminal Law Committee: Fifth interim report;
  • Comité de Droit International Médical et Humanitaire;
  • Air Law Committee;
  • International Committee on State Immunity, including the ILA Montreal Draft Convention on State Immunity;
  • International Committee on the Exclusive Economic Zone;
  • Committee on International Commercial Arbitration;
  • Committee on Collisions at Sea: Third interim report.


ILA 02/39/01

Conference at Paris, 1984.  Reports and administrative correspondence with programme.  Reports presented by committees, including:

  • International Criminal Law Committee: ‘Second Late Amendment: Addendum to the Annex concerning Articles 2, a-r, of the Draft Statute for an International Commission of Criminal Inquiry, printed in the Report of the 60th ILA Conference (Montreal)’-


ILA 03: International Committees, 1875-2019

Reference Title Dates
ILA 03/33/02

Committee on International Law in Municipal/National Courts.  Administrative correspondence. Subjects discussed include composition of the Committee; Committee reports and meetings.

Includes: Reply to Committee questionnaire re courts in Canada, Poland, the United Kingdom and Australia. CLOSED until 2029.


ILA 04: Regional branches of the ILA: records, 1877-2013

ILA 04/63: International Law Association in Canada, 1985-1991

Reference Title Dates

ILA 04/63

Correspondence re delivery of the Louis M. Bloomfield Memorial Lecture in International    Law, and pamphlets containing the texts of the first, third and fourth lectures:

  • First Louis M. Bloomfield Memorial Lecture in International Law, 'International Carriage by Air Codification: Uniformity and Diversity', delivered by Nicolas Mateesco Matta at the Centre for Research of Air and Space Law, McGill University, 014 March 1985.
  • Third Louis M. Bloomfield Memorial Lecture in International Law, ‘Le dialogue est-ouest, l’Europe et l’option double zero’, by René Jean Dupuy and Pierre Gallois, Montreal, 20 October 1987.
  • Fourth Louis M. Bloomfield Memorial Lecture in International Law, ‘La Cour Internationale de Justice: Crise ou renouveau?/The International Court of Justice: Crisis or renewal?’, by Gilbert Guillaume.


Professor William L Twining, Law Teacher (TWIN): Papers, 1944-2006

Professor William L Twining, Law Teacher (TWIN): Papers, 1944-2006

Biographical History: William Lawrence Twining (b.1934) has had a long and distinguished career in law teaching and has been involved in many projects relating to legal education.  He was educated at Charterhouse School, Brasenose College, Oxford and the University of Chicago.

He was Chair of the Commonwealth Legal Education Association (CLEA) from 1983-1993 and Supervisor of the Commonwealth Legal Records Project (records held in the IALS Archives; ref: CLRP). 

University posts:

  • Lecturer in Private Law at the University of Khartoum (1958-1961)
  • Senior Lecturer in Law at University College, Dar-es-Salaam (1961-1965)
  • Professor of Jurisprudence at the Queen's University, Belfast (1965-1972)
  • Professor of Law at the University of Warwick (1972-1982)
  • Quain Professor of Jurisprudence at University College London (1983-1996)
  • Director of University of London LLM Review (1992-1993)

Selected items:

Reference Title Dates

TWIN 04/01/09

Article: Clinical Course Design and the Supervisory Process, Peter Toll Hoffman (from the Arizona State Law Journal); and covering letter from Peter T Hoffman, University of Nebraska to Neil Gold, University of Windsor, Ontario


TWIN 04/01/13

Article: Lawyer Interviews with Simulated Clients: A methodological Pilot Study by Constance K Lundberg and Larry C Farmer, draft; and covering letter from William T Loris, Program Legal Counsel, IDLI to Neil Gold, Faculty of Law, Windsor, Ontario re proposed establishment of Commonwealth Institute for Legal Education and Training


TWIN 04/02/16

Report: Profile of Published Legal Research, A report to the Consultative Group on Research and Education in Law based on a survey of Canadian legal publications, Alice Janisch


TWIN 04/02/20

Canadian Law Faculties, A Report of the Consultative Group on Research and Education in Law based on the 1981 survey of Canadian law Faculties and statistics of the Canadian deans of law, John S McKennirey


TWIN 04/02/21

Report: Sources of Support for Legal Research, A report to the Consultative Group on Research and Education in Law based on a survey of foundations, law reform commissions, departments of justices, and attorneys and solicitors general in Canada, John S McKennirey


TWIN 04/02/22

A summary of Law and Learning Report of the Consultative Group on Research and Education in Law, Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada


TWIN 04/02/29

Report: The Canadian Law Clinics: Reflections and Prospects (Including a Report Concerning the Fifth Canadian Law Teach Clinic), Neil Gold and LA Fisher


TWIN 04/02/33

Report on the Reform of Professional Legal Training in New Zealand for The New Zealand Law Society and Council of Legal Education, Neil Gold


TWIN 04/02/34

Report to the Council of the Nova Scotia Barristers; Society on Professional Legal Education and Training, Legal Education Committee


TWIN 04/02/39

Education and Work in a Changing Society: Strategic Research Grant Proposal. The Impact of Admissions Criteria on Access to Legal Education and Legal Work in a Changing Society, Faculty of Law, University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada


TWIN 04/02/45

The Law Society of British Columbia: Requirements of Newly Called Lawyers, a Consultation Document